Other Free Encyclopedias » Psychology Encyclopedia » Branches of Psychology

Etiology - The change in theory

theories of personality psychology encyclopedia famous psychologists psychological disorders causes freud

The study and investigation into the root causes of a psychological disorder so that it might be resolved.

Psychological etiology refers to the scientific investigation into the origins of a disorder that cannot be explained biologically. Etiology is complicated by the fact that most disorders have more than one cause. Early etiological theories were the Freudian and post-Freudian psychoanalytic beliefs. Sigmund Freud attributed mental or neurotic disorders to deep-seated or hidden psychic motivations. The unconscious played the primary role in Freud's approach. According to Freud, the person in conflict was unaware of the cause because it was too deeply embedded in an inaccessible part of the mind. Freud postulated that the occurrence of previous traumas, unacceptable feelings, or wanton drives enacted a defense mechanism that enabled this burial into the unconscious. As a means of survival, a person might push such unsavory thoughts and memories as far from the conscious mind as possible.

Childhood, according to Freud, was the time when many repressed motivations and defense mechanisms began to thrive. Without control over their own lives, children have no way to resolve such emotions that include frustration, insecurity, or guilt. These emotions essentially build up while the child's personality is developing into adulthood. Every psychological disorder from sexual dysfunction to anxiety might be explained after talking about the repressed feelings a person has harbored since childhood.

The change in theory

A new trend in determining the causes of psychological disorders began to thrive after World War II. Some of the psychologists who proposed this new etiology had studied under Freud but ultimately looked further to explain the nature and causes of psychological disorders. Carl Jung, for example, believed that a person's need for spirituality lead to dissatisfaction if it were not met. The inability to thus define oneself spiritually contributed to the rise of psychological or neurotic disorders. For Alfred Adler, feelings of inferiority captured the focus of conflict. Others, including Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney, and Erick Fromm, used Freud's theory as a basis for their thought but emphasized instead the importance of social, cultural, and environmental factors in uncovering the causes for psychological problems.

Another type of etiology that emerged after Freud is called behavioral etiology. This focuses on learned behaviors as causes of mental disorders. Ivan Pavlov and B. F. Skinner are two famous behavioral psychologists. Behaviorists argue that the mind can be "trained" to respond to stimuli in various ways. A conditioned response is one which is learned when a stimulus produces a response, and that response is somehow reinforced. A young girl, for example, is told she is cute for screeching at the sight of a spider. She learns that this screech produces a favorable response from onlookers. Over time, this learned behavior may develop into a truly paralyzing fear of spiders. Behaviorists believe that just as a person can be conditioned to respond to a stimulus in a particular way, that same person can be conditioned to respond differently. In other words, more appropriate behavior can be learned, which is the basis for behavioral therapy.

With modern approaches to therapy, including the existential and cognitive approach, psychology has moved away from depicting mental illnesses as emerging from one root cause. For example, clinical psychologists generally search for a complexity of issues that stem from emotional, psychosexual, social, cultural, or existential causes. The cognitive approach, such as that developed by Aaron Beck, attempts to readapt behavioral responses through a rational process that demands an honesty and discipline to undo fears and anxieties. Cognitive therapies might even have a positive role in treating schizophrenia without medication.

While psychologists have focused on the mind itself as the location where psychological impairment might begin, medical doctors and researchers have continued to understand the biology that might influence mental disorders. Many of these studies have resulted in the refinement of prescription medications that alter a person's biochemistry to prevent or control various illnesses such as depression or schizophrenia. Neuropathology, or damage to brain tissue, can also serve as a biological cause of psychological disorders. Genetic research has been conducted to determine causes of certain disorders at the level of DNA. Researchers have been working for decades to isolate a gene that contains the "program" for schizophrenia. In fact, reports of fully recovered schizophrenics treated without medication continued to rise by 2000. Psychological intervention seems to be just as effective as medical treatment for schizophrenic episodes.

Crucial to the treatment of any disorder is an understanding of its possible causes. Psychologists need to determine the etiology of a disorder before they can modify behavior.

See also Behaviorism; Cognitive therapy

Jane Spear

Further Reading

Benner, David G., and Hill, Peter C., ed. Baker Encyclopedia of Psychology & Counseling. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1999.

Corsini, Ray, ed. Encyclopedia of Psychology, Second Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons 1994.

McGuire, Patrick A. New Hope for People with Schizophrenia. APA Monitor on Psychology, February 2, 2000.

Further Information

American Psychological Association. 750 First Street, N.E., Washington, D.C., USA. 20002-4242, 202-336-5500, 800-374-2721.

Existential Psychology - History of the movement [next] [back] Ethology

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or

Vote down Vote up

3 months ago

This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger.

I’ve joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking
more of your excellent post.
http://erosa.ca

Vote down Vote up

3 months ago

I like this website very much, Its a real nice place to read and obtain info
http://erosa.ca

Vote down Vote up

4 months ago

I’d have to check with you here. Which isn’t something I often do! I enjoy reading a put up that may make individuals think.
http://americanmdcenter.com

Vote down Vote up

4 months ago

I’ll right away snatch your rss as I can not find your email subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service.
http://americanmdcenter.com

Vote down Vote up

7 months ago

QuickBooks Support Phone Number
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-pro/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-payroll/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-premier/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-enterprise/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-payroll-support/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-support-services/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-technical-support/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-support-small-business/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-customer-service-number/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-pos-support-phone-number/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-data-recovery-phone-number/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-payroll-support-phone-number/
http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/quickbooks-enterprise-support-phone-number/

Vote down Vote up

7 months ago

Tech Support Number
Sage Tech Support Phone Number @ http://sagetech.supportphone-number.com/
QuickBooks Support Phone Number @ http://www.quickbookssupportphone-number.com/
Quicken tech Support Phone Number @ http://quickentech.supportphone-number.com/
QuickBooks Tech Support Phone Number @ http://quickbookstech.supportphone-number.com/

Vote down Vote up

9 months ago

reference for spear jane

Vote down Vote up

10 months ago

Top Support Service
http://www.quickbooks.support-phonenumber.com/
http://www.quicken.support-phonenumber.com/
http://www.sage.support-phonenumber.com/
http://www.aol.support-phonenumber.com/
http://www.outlook.support-phonenumber.com/

Vote down Vote up

10 months ago

Best Support Service
http://www.quickbooks.technical-supportnumber.com/
http://www.quicken.technical-supportnumber.com/
http://www.sage.technical-supportnumber.com/
http://www.aol.technical-supportnumber.com/
http://www.outlook.technical-supportnumber.com/

Vote down Vote up

11 months ago

Quickbooks Support Number @ http://www.quickbooks.intuit-techsupport.com/
Quickbooks Support Phone Number @ http://www.quickbooks.support-phonenumber.com/
Quicken Support Phone Number @ http://www.quicken.support-phonenumber.com/
Quicken Support Number @ http://www.quicken.intuit-techsupport.com/
Sage Support Phone Number @ http://www.sage.support-phonenumber.com/

Vote down Vote up

about 1 year ago

Top Packers and Movers Companies
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-pune.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-noida.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-kolkata.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-chandigarh.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-navi-mumbai.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-thane.html
http://www.pikup5th.in/

Vote down Vote up

about 1 year ago

Packers and Movers Nagpur @ http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-nagpur.html
Packers and Movers Nashik @ http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-nashik.html
Packers and Movers Faridabad @ http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad.html
Packers and Movers Ghaziabad @ http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad.html
Packers and Movers Ahmedabad @ http://www.pikup5th.in/packers-and-movers-ahmedabad.html

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago


Thanks for post this helpful post - Please visit for More information about:
http://www.top9th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
http://www.top9th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/
http://www.top9th.in/packers-and-movers-kolkata/
http://www.top9th.in/packers-and-movers-ahmedabad/
http://www.top9th.in/packers-and-movers-surat/

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago



Thanks for post this helpful post - Please visit for More information about:

http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-surat/
http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-navimumbai/
http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-ahmedabad/
http://www.top9th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago


Thanks for post this helpful post - Please visit for More information about:

http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/
http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
http://www.top9th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago


Thanks for post this helpful post - Please visit for More information about:

http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
http://www.expert9th.in/packers-and-movers-kolkata/
http://www.top9th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-patna.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-nashik.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-ahmedabad.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-lucknow.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-jalandhar.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-ludhiana.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-amritsar.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-mohali.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-ambala.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-panchkula.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-nagpur.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad.html

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

http://www.top7pm.in/
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-pune.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-chennai.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-delhi.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-noida.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-kolkata.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-chandigarh.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-thane.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-navi-mumbai.html
http://www.top7pm.in/packers-and-movers-jaipur.html

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

asdasddasdsa

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Thanks for all your information.Website is very nice and informative content.
http://www.dteller.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
http://www.dteller.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
http://www.dteller.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
http://www.dteller.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.dteller.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
http://www.dteller.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
http://dteller.in/

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

http://www.top6pm.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore.html
http://www.top6pm.in/packers-and-movers-pune.html
http://www.top6pm.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai.html
http://www.top6pm.in/packers-and-movers-delhi.html
http://www.top6pm.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon.html
http://www.top6pm.in/

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Packers and Movers company visit for more information: -
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
http://www.best7th.in/

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Packers and Movers company visit for more information: -
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-kolkata/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-chandigarh/

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Packers and Movers company visit for more information: -
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-kolkata/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
http://www.best7th.in/packers-and-movers-chandigarh/

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago


thanks for sharing with us that awesome artilcle you have amazing blog
http://www.happynewyear2016-images.com
http://www.recipefrance.com/2015/04/meilleur-images-de-bonne-annee-2016.html
http://www.felizanonuevo2016frases.com
http://www.recipefrance.com/2015/04/journee-internationale-des-droits-des-femmes-2016.html

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Best packing & moving companies

http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-thane/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-navi-mumbai/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Best packing & moving companies

http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers for Transporting Services:-

http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/
http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
http://4ad.in/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers for Transporting Services:-

http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-navi-mumbai/
http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-thane/
http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

For Shifting and Transporting Services::-

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-hyderabad/ @ Packkers and Movers Hyderabad

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-bangalore/ @ Packers and Movers Bangalore

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-chennai/ @ Packers and Movers Chennai

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-pune/ @ Packers and Movers Pune

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-mumbai/ @ Packers and Movers Mumbai

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-delhi/ @ Packers and Movers Delhi

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-gurgaon/ @ Packers and Movers Gurgaon

http://www.export5th.in/ @ Packers and Movers in India

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

For Shifting and Transporting Services::-

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-hyderabad/ @ Packkers and Movers Hyderabad

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-bangalore/ @ Packers and Movers Bangalore

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-chennai/ @ Packers and Movers Chennai

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-pune/ @ Packers and Movers Pune

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-mumbai/ @ Packers and Movers Mumbai

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-delhi/ @ Packers and Movers Delhi

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-gurgaon/ @ Packers and Movers Gurgaon

http://www.export5th.in/ @ Packers and Movers in India

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Thanks for post this helpful post - Please visit for More information about -
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
http://packersmoverspune.top3rd.in/
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

This article is really fantastic and thanks for sharing the valuable post.
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Thanks for all your information, Website is very nice and informative content.
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-thane/
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-navimumbai/
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers Pune @
http://www.expert5th.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
Packers and Movers Pune or
http://packersmoverspune.top3rd.in/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers Gurgaon @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-gurgaon/
Packers and Movers Chennai @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-chennai/
Packers and Movers Noida @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-noida/
Packers and Movers Thane @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-thane/
Packers and Movers Navi Mumbai @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-navimumbai/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers Hyderabad @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-hyderabad/
Packers and Movers Bangalore @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-bangalore/
Packers and Movers Pune @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-pune/
Packers and Movers Mumbai @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-mumbai/
Packers and Movers Delhi @
http://www.smaart5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-delhi/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers Delhi @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
Packers and Movers Gurgaon @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
Packers and Movers Noida @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
Packers and Movers Faridabad @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
Packers and Movers Ghaziabad @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/
Packers and Movers India @ http://list5th.in/
Packers and Movers India @ http://www.export5th.in/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

Packers and Movers Hyderabad @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
Packers and Movers Bangalore @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
Packers and Movers Chennai @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/
Packers and Movers Pune @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
Packers and Movers Mumbai @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

There are various packers together with movers service providers in the course of Faridabad, the particular financial funds associated with Japan.

Packers and Movers Faridabad @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
Packers and Movers Noida @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
Packers and Movers Delhi @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
Packers and Movers Ghaziabad @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

http://top3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-navi-mumbai/
http://top3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-thane/
Packers and Movers Noida @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
Packers and Movers Faridabad @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
Packers and Movers Delhi @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
Packers and Movers Ghaziabad @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

List 5 Packers and Movers if you are the all for provide best packing and moving services.

Packers and Movers Delhi or http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/

Packers and Movers Gurgaon or http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/

Packers and Movers Noida or http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/

Packers and Movers Faridabad or http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/

Packers and Movers Ghaziabad or http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/

Vote down Vote up

about 2 years ago

List Packers and Movers check out from the finest range for provide packing and moving services.

Packers and Movers Bangalore by http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/

Packers and Movers Hyderabad by http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/

Packers and Movers Chennai by http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/

Packers and Movers Pune by http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-pune/

Packers and Movers Mumbai by http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/

Packers and Movers or http://list5th.in/

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

I have no idea where that was from but I knew it was Sorkin before I even Googled. And yeah. I care about Important Feminist Issues, but I don't always need them all over my Hairpin smut

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

It's a great pleasure reading your post.It's full of information I am looking for and I love to post a comment that "The content of your post is awesome" Great work! http://mixcraft-6-crack.blogspot.com/

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

licensed material originally published in print form. You can always be sure you're reading unbiased, factual, and accurate information.
Windows 8 loader

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Nice information, valuable and excellent design, as share good stuff with good ideas and concepts, lots of great information and inspiration, both of which we all need, thanks for all the enthusiasm to offer such helpful information here.

Where To Do In Malta

Vote down Vote up

about 4 years ago

I love to take my time thinking to cross New Ladero lest keep in touch.Always inadvertently see things like this, I am very interested,learn more