Other Free Encyclopedias » Psychology Encyclopedia » Diseases, Disorders & Mental Conditions

Brain Disorders

types of schizophrenia developmental reading million stroke tumors disease

Any of the various disorders associated with the human brain, including stroke, trauma, and tumors.

It has recently been reported that neurology, the study of the brain, is the fastest growing specialty in the life sciences. With this growth has come a wealth of new information about the origins of and treatments for some of the more prevalent brain disorders. There are many varieties of brain disorders that affect humans, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and other disorders that are more generally thought of as being "behavioral" rather than biological. These types of disorders that could be termed disorders of the brain in a broad sense include depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Beyond these, however, are several other types of disorders of the brain, including stroke, trauma, brain tumors, and developmental disorders such as muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy.

Strokes are the third leading cause of death in the United States and are one of the leading causes of disability among older adults. According to the most recent statistics, a staggering 1,200 people suffer from strokes each day in this country. "Stroke" is technically a lay term; when physicians speak of strokes, they are referring to thromboses, hemorrhages, or embolisms. Basically, the term stroke refers to the loss of blood to a part of the brain and the resulting tissue damage. Because of the variables involved, strokes are often not correctly diagnosed. Often, especially with very mild events, a patient will attribute odd sensations to something else. The effects of a stroke may vary, based on its origins and the area of the brain that was deprived of blood. Generally speaking, if tissue damage occurred in the right brain hemisphere, the victim may experience some degree of paralysis on the left side of the body, a distortion of vision, especially the ability to perceive depth and distance, and a loss of memory. If the tissue affected is on the left side of the brain, patients may experience some degree of paralysis on the right side of the body, minor memory loss, and some degree of language loss.

Other common brain disorders include the array of conditions caused by head trauma. Injuries to the head can, obviously, vary tremendously, but such injuries all result in biochemical abnormalities in the brain. After the head has been injured in some way, a tremendous amount of chemicals travel through the brain, which often have detrimental effects on brain cells, including paralysis and behavioral and cognitive losses. Recent medical advances have uncovered some drugs and treatments that can offset this after-effect of trauma, and physicians now know that brain cells can be replaced in adults, a procedure that was thought impossible only a decade ago. Doctors now have the ability to procure accurate images of the brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, allowing them to pinpoint damaged areas for treatment.

The incidence of brain tumors has increased in recent years, although it is not certain if this trend is simply a result of better diagnostic technology, such as MRIs. Nonetheless, treatments devised thus far have generally been less than stellar. Researchers have found that certain genes inside tumors are capable of creating resistance to drugs being used to destroy the tumor. Often, if drug treatment of brain tumors is ineffective, surgery is required to remove the tumor, which can further damage the brain.

Developmental neurologic disorders of the brain include well-known brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, muscular dystrophy, and cerebral palsy. Most of these disorders are now known to be inheritable, passed from one generation to another genetically. Recent research has isolated the gene that causes strains of Alzheimer's, Huntington's disease, and several other muscular disorders. Cerebral palsy, a devastating developmental neurologic disorder involving severe muscle and coordination deterioration, has been attributed to stroke in newborn infants.

In 1995, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) spent the following studying brain disorders: Alzheimer's disease, $305 million; stroke, $116 million; multiple sclerosis, $80 million; Parkinson's disease, $72 million; epilepsy, $55 million; and head injury, $51 million. As a way of comparison, NIH spent $199 million studying arthritis in 1995.

Further Reading

"Cognitive Impairment to Dementia." The Lancet (25 February 1995): 465.

"Combating Disorders of the Brain." New York Times (30 August 1994).

Connaughton, P. Noel. "Decade of the Brain: A Midpoint Status Report." Patient Care (15 July 1995).

Guiness, Alma E., ed. The Reader's Digest ABCs of the Human Mind. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Association, 1990.

Mattson, Sarah N. "MRI and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Images Provide Insight into FAS." Alcohol Health and research World (Winter 1994): 49.

Brief Reactive Psychosis [next] [back] Bipolar Disorder

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or

Vote down Vote up

about 1 month ago

PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICATIONS AND OTHER DRUGS AT VERY AFFORDABLE PRICES. WE DO OFFER DISCREET OVERNIGHT SHIPMENTS TO BUYERS IN USA AND CANADA AND 48-72 HOURS DELIVERY TO BUYERS IN EUROPE AND ASIA DEPENDING ON YOUR LOCATION. WE DO PROVIDE TRACKING NUMBERS AS PROOF OF SHIPMENTS SO YOU CAN TRACK YOUR PARCELS TIMELY. SO IF INTERESTED JUST CONTACT US NOW FOR INSTANT RESPONSE

Customer service.
-EMAIL : keystonemeds(AT)protonmail(DOT)com /
-Tel: +1(213) 5346894 /
-W1ckr ID: intermeds247

DISCREET AND RELIABLE OVERNIGHT DELIVERY
BELOW IS A LIST OF OUR PRODUCTS :-

#ayurvedic urea in powder
#Lemon Quaaludes 714
#Etaqualone powder Etaqualone pills
#Xanax 1 mg Upjohn footbals
#XANAX 1 mg (blue Ksalol)
#Xanax SR 2 mg (brand Upjohn)
# Xanax 2 mg (Pfizer LongBars)
#Valium 10 mg Bensedine
#AMBIEN (Zolpidem, Stilnox)
#Lorazepam 2.5 mg (Ativan)
#Clonazepam 2 mg (Rivotril)
#Nitrazeoam 5 mg (Nipam)
#Bromazepam 6 mg (Lexotan)
#Apaurine 10 mg (blue valium)
#aderall generic: amphetamine salt combo
#arimidex chemical name: anastrozole
30 pills
#adderall xr 10mg capsules 30 capsules
#codeine 30/500mg
#demerol (meperidine hcl) caps
#diazepam
#dilaudid
#soma -generic-
#ketalar injection
#ritalin
#flexeril (cyclobenzaprine) merck tabs
#hydrocodone 10mg/500mg 60tabs
#roxicodone 30mg (physicians tc)
#clonazepam (klonopin)
#fentanyl brand name: #duragesic 5-12 12.5 mcg/hr patches box
#oxycontin
#methadone
#seconal (chemical name-secobarbital)
#oxycodone-apap (wattson labs)
#vailum
#cialis
#vicoprofen (generic:hydrocodone-ibuprofen)
#hydrocodone-ibuprofen (brand name:vicoprofen)
#suboxone
#subutex

SERIOUS BUYERS ONLY. SAMPLE HUNTERS PLEASE EXCUSE

Pain Killers, Prescription Pills, Intermediates Medications,For more inquiries on purchase and shipping just hit us back through our customer service.
-EMAIL : keystonemeds(AT)protonmail(DOT)com /
-Tel: +1(213) 5346894 /
-W1ckr ID: intermeds247
"Offering my help to those who are legitimately in need of their medications"

(Fast,Reliable & Discreet)

We offer:
- Good quality Meds.
- Good and affordable prices.
- Fast and Reliable delivery -Tracking Available!
- Various shipping option (Overnight and Regular).
- No Prescription Required! No package sign-off
- Buy Direct and Save Time and Money!
- 100% Customer Satisfaction Guaranteed
PLEASE ONLY SERIOUS BUYERS ARE WELCOME


Buy Nembutal liquid and powder form.
Buy Seconal 100mg
Buy Suboxone 8mg
Buy Oxy 20mg,40mg and 80mg
Buy Actavis Promethazine (16oz and 320z)
Buy Hydrocodone 10/325mg
Buy Valium 10mg and 20 mg
Buy Xanax 1mg and 2 mg bars
Buy Dilaudid 4mg and 8mg
Buy Ritalin 10mg, 20 mg
Buy Percocet 7.5mg,5mg and 10mg
Buy Opana 40mg
Buy Phentermine 37.5mg
Buy Adderall 30mg
Buy Methadone 40mg
Buy Fentanyl
we also sell many others meds not mention on the
list above . We have answers to all your queries, feel free to contact us.


Stimulant Drugs - Caffeine and nicotine, Stimulants used for therapeutic purposes, - Abnormal Psychological Disorders, Cocaine, and Amphetamines -

Vote down Vote up

about 1 month ago

PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICATIONS AND OTHER DRUGS AT VERY AFFORDABLE PRICES. WE DO OFFER DISCREET OVERNIGHT SHIPMENTS TO BUYERS IN USA AND CANADA AND 48-72 HOURS DELIVERY TO BUYERS IN EUROPE AND ASIA DEPENDING ON YOUR LOCATION. WE DO PROVIDE TRACKING NUMBERS AS PROOF OF SHIPMENTS SO YOU CAN TRACK YOUR PARCELS TIMELY. SO IF INTERESTED JUST CONTACT US NOW FOR INSTANT RESPONSE

Customer service.
-EMAIL : keystonemeds(AT)protonmail(DOT)com /
-Tel: +1(213) 5346894 /
-W1ckr ID: intermeds247

DISCREET AND RELIABLE OVERNIGHT DELIVERY
BELOW IS A LIST OF OUR PRODUCTS :-

#ayurvedic urea in powder
#Lemon Quaaludes 714
#Etaqualone powder Etaqualone pills
#Xanax 1 mg Upjohn footbals
#XANAX 1 mg (blue Ksalol)
#Xanax SR 2 mg (brand Upjohn)
# Xanax 2 mg (Pfizer LongBars)
#Valium 10 mg Bensedine
#AMBIEN (Zolpidem, Stilnox)
#Lorazepam 2.5 mg (Ativan)
#Clonazepam 2 mg (Rivotril)
#Nitrazeoam 5 mg (Nipam)
#Bromazepam 6 mg (Lexotan)
#Apaurine 10 mg (blue valium)
#aderall generic: amphetamine salt combo
#arimidex chemical name: anastrozole
30 pills
#adderall xr 10mg capsules 30 capsules
#codeine 30/500mg
#demerol (meperidine hcl) caps
#diazepam
#dilaudid
#soma -generic-
#ketalar injection
#ritalin
#flexeril (cyclobenzaprine) merck tabs
#hydrocodone 10mg/500mg 60tabs
#roxicodone 30mg (physicians tc)
#clonazepam (klonopin)
#fentanyl brand name: #duragesic 5-12 12.5 mcg/hr patches box
#oxycontin
#methadone
#seconal (chemical name-secobarbital)
#oxycodone-apap (wattson labs)
#vailum
#cialis
#vicoprofen (generic:hydrocodone-ibuprofen)
#hydrocodone-ibuprofen (brand name:vicoprofen)
#suboxone
#subutex

SERIOUS BUYERS ONLY. SAMPLE HUNTERS PLEASE EXCUSE

Pain Killers, Prescription Pills, Intermediates Medications,For more inquiries on purchase and shipping just hit us back through our customer service.
-EMAIL : keystonemeds(AT)protonmail(DOT)com /
-Tel: +1(213) 5346894 /
-W1ckr ID: intermeds247
"Offering my help to those who are legitimately in need of their medications"

(Fast,Reliable & Discreet)

We offer:
- Good quality Meds.
- Good and affordable prices.
- Fast and Reliable delivery -Tracking Available!
- Various shipping option (Overnight and Regular).
- No Prescription Required! No package sign-off
- Buy Direct and Save Time and Money!
- 100% Customer Satisfaction Guaranteed
PLEASE ONLY SERIOUS BUYERS ARE WELCOME


Buy Nembutal liquid and powder form.
Buy Seconal 100mg
Buy Suboxone 8mg
Buy Oxy 20mg,40mg and 80mg
Buy Actavis Promethazine (16oz and 320z)
Buy Hydrocodone 10/325mg
Buy Valium 10mg and 20 mg
Buy Xanax 1mg and 2 mg bars
Buy Dilaudid 4mg and 8mg
Buy Ritalin 10mg, 20 mg
Buy Percocet 7.5mg,5mg and 10mg
Buy Opana 40mg
Buy Phentermine 37.5mg
Buy Adderall 30mg
Buy Methadone 40mg
Buy Fentanyl
we also sell many others meds not mention on the
list above . We have answers to all your queries, feel free to contact us.


Stimulant Drugs - Caffeine and nicotine, Stimulants used for therapeutic purposes, - Abnormal Psychological Disorders, Cocaine, and Amphetamines -

Vote down Vote up

3 months ago

Order quality Oxycodone, Percocert, Dilaudid, Codeine, Klonopin, Fentanyl, Nembutal, Ritalin, Valium, Roxicodone and many more..Email: topcaliberstocks@protonmail.com OR
Tel = Call/Text: +1(469) 249 2518 »

Stop buying fake or low quality stuffs. Order high quality stuffs from us with or without prescription. Are you a patient interested to order prescription drugs or are you interested to Get high? don't hensitate to contact us and refill your cup with or without prescription or insurrance. We are interested to be your long term supplier and you our reliable and value customers. We are proud of our quality and prices are discounted to all customers.

we do offer secure and fast shipping via UPS, EMS, FedEx. packaging is dicrete and sealed proffessionally with aluminium foil.

Email: topcaliberstocks@protonmail.com OR
Tel = Call/Text: +1(469) 249 2518 » place your order

Roxicodone,
Cialis,
Viagra,
Klonopin,
Percocert,
Fentalyn patches,
Mandrax,
Nipam,
Lexotan,
Subutex,
Nembutal ; powder,liquid and pills forms,
Xanax,
Onax,
Rivotril,
Ativan,
Phentermine,
Ambien,
Ritalin,
Opana,
Hydrocodone,
Acetaminophen,
Alprazolam,
Bramodol,
Ibuprofen,
Arimidex,
Adderall,
Codeine,
Demerol,
Oxycodone,
Oxycontin,
SOMA,
Actavis Promethazine with Codeine purple cough syrup etc........

my services...
-No prescription required
- Express prior overnight or next day delivery
- Packing is highly discreet sealed, wrapped with an aluminum foil, safe and secure
- No signature required upon arrival of parcel
- Money back guarantee
- I offer door to door delivery services
- Excellent and unbeatable prices.
- Good quality Meds.
- Buy Direct and Save Time and Money!
- 100% Customer Satisfaction Guaranteed !

Place your order and i will supply Email: topcaliberstocks@protonmail.com OR
Tel = Call/Text: +1(469) 249 2518

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

http://www.the5th.in/
http://www.the5th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad.html
http://www.the5th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai.html
http://www.the5th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi.html
http://www.the5th.in/packers-and-movers-noida.html
http://www.the5th.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad.html
http://www.the5th.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad.html

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

http://www.adword.co.in/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
http://www.adword.co.in/packers-and-movers-pune/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-thane/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-navi-mumbai/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/
http://www.5th.co.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

For Shifting and Transporting Services::-

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-hyderabad/ @ Packkers and Movers Hyderabad

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-bangalore/ @ Packers and Movers Bangalore

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-chennai/ @ Packers and Movers Chennai

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-pune/ @ Packers and Movers Pune

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-mumbai/ @ Packers and Movers Mumbai

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-delhi/ @ Packers and Movers Delhi

http://www.export5th.in/packers-and-movers-in-gurgaon/ @ Packers and Movers Gurgaon

http://www.export5th.in/ @ Packers and Movers in India

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Top 5 Packers and Movers in Bangalore or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
Top 5 Packers and Movers in Delhi or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
Top 5 Packers and Movers in Noida or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
Top 5 Packers and Movers in Ghaziabad or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/
Top 5 Packers and Movers in Faridabad or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
http://4ad.in/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Top 5 Packers and Movers in Pune or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
Top 5 Packers and Movers in Mumbai or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/
Top 5 Packers and Movers in Navi Mumbai or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-navi-mumbai/
Top 5 Packers and Movers in Thane or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-thane/
Top 5 Packers and Movers in Gurgaon or http://www.great5th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Packers and Movers Chennai @
http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/
Packers and Movers Hyderabad @
http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
Packers and Movers Bangalore @
http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
Packers and Movers Mumbai @
http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Packers and Movers Chennai @
http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/
Packers and Movers Hyderabad @
http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
Packers and Movers Bangalore @
http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
Packers and Movers Mumbai @
http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

procedure that was thought impossible only a decade ago. Doctors now have the ability to procure accurate images of the brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, allowing them to pinpoint damaged areas for treatment.

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

procedure that was thought impossible only a decade ago. Doctors now have the ability to procure accurate images of the brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, allowing them to pinpoint damaged areas for treatment.

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Packers and Movers in Delhi @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
Packers and Movers in Gurgaon @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-gurgaon/
Packers and Movers in Noida @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
Packers and Movers in Faridabad @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
Packers and Movers in Ghaziabad @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/
Packers and Movers in India @ http://list5th.in/
Packers and Movers in India @ http://www.export5th.in/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Packers and Movers in Hyderabad @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-hyderabad/
Packers and Movers in Bangalore @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-bangalore/
Packers and Movers in Chennai @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-chennai/
Packers and Movers in Pune @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-pune/
Packers and Movers in Mumbai @ http://list5th.in/packers-and-movers-mumbai/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Yet a modest mistake can foundation a somber loss or harm to the pricey goods as well as you may additionally have to bathe your hand by technique of those fussy goods continually.


Packers and Movers Faridabad @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
Packers and Movers Noida @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
Packers and Movers Delhi @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
Packers and Movers Ghaziabad @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

http://top3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-navi-mumbai/
http://top3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-thane/
Packers and Movers Noida @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-noida/
Packers and Movers Faridabad @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-faridabad/
Packers and Movers Delhi @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-delhi/
Packers and Movers Ghaziabad @ http://3th.co.in/packers-and-movers-ghaziabad/

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

drugs being used to destroy the tumor. Often, if drug treatment of brain tumors is ineffective, surgery is required to remove the tumor, which can further damage the brain.

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Huntington's disease, and several other muscular disorders. Cerebral palsy, a devastating developmental neurologic disorder involving severe muscle and coordination deterioration, has been attributed to stroke in newborn infants.

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

dxvvxzvxc