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Neurotransmitter

Chemical substances or molecules which aid in message transmission between neurons.

Communication at the synapses between neurons relies on chemicals called neurotransmitters. Secreted from a part of one neuron (the axon) into the synaptic gap between two others, neurotransmitters diffuse across this space and combine with specific proteins on the surface of the receiving cell, triggering an electrochemical response in the target cell. Afterward, neurotransmitters are either destroyed or reabsorbed back into the neuron for storage and reuse. The release of neurotransmitters by a neuron has three main functions: 1) exciting a second neuron, thus causing it to depolarize; 2) inhibiting a second neuron, which prevents it from depolarizing; and 3) stimulating a muscle fiber to contract.

More than 50 different neurotransmitters have been identified, and more are constantly being discovered. Researchers have proposed that almost all drugs work through interaction with neurotransmitters. Important neurotransmitters include acetylcholine (ACh), which is used by motor neurons in the spinal cord; the catecholamines (including norepinephrine and dopamine), which are important in the arousal of the sympathetic nervous system; serotonin, which affects body temperature, sensory perception, and the onset of sleep; and a group of transmitters called endorphins, which are involved in the relief of pain. In recent years, it has been recognized that biochemical imbalances in the brain play an important role in mental illness. Low levels of norepinephrine characterize some varieties of depression, for example, and an imbalance of dopamine is considered a factor in schizophrenia.

Additional topics

Psychology EncyclopediaPsychological Dictionary: Ibn Bajjah (Abu-Bakr Muhammad ibn-Yahya ibn-al-Saʼigh, c.1106–38) Biography to Perception: cultural differences