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A description of the condition opposite depression in manic-depressive psychosis, or bipolar disorder. It is characterized by a mood of elation without apparent reason.

Most episodes of mania—elation without reasonable cause or justification—are followed in short order by depression; together they represent the opposites described as bipolar disorder. Manic episodes are characterized by intense feelings of energy and enthusiasm, uncharacteristic self-confidence, continuous talking, and little need for sleep. People experiencing a manic period tend to make grandiose plans and maintain inflated beliefs about their own personal abilities. While manic people appear to be joyful and celebratory, their mood corresponds little to conditions they are experiencing in reality. Expressions of hostility and irritability also are common during manic episodes.

Further Reading

Duke, Patty. Call Me Anna. New York: Bantam, 1987.

Jamison, Kay. Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament. New York: Free Press, 1993

Additional topics

Psychology EncyclopediaDiseases, Disorders & Mental Conditions